SX3: 3-Minute Time-Synchronized Spoofing over the Air on L1/E1 in Driving

Spoofing is the most sophisticated form of interference and is difficult to be detected. It is a malicious attack that can manipulate various parameters, such as timing information, ranging information, and ephemeris data, leading the receiver to provide false information.

A spoofing attack can be categorized as either time-unsynchronized or time-synchronized, depending on the synchronization of the spoofer with GNSS satellites.

This product is a sample package on L1/E1 frequency recorded by an SX3 front-end mounted on a driving car. In this scenario, a time-synchronized position spoofing is generated over the air by a LOKI device to change the position.

Both LOKI generator and the target receiver were configured to work with GPS L1 and Galileo E1 signals. The car followed a predetermined street at a speed of 50 km/h. LOKI was used to initiate the spoofing of the car as soon as it entered the spoofed red area. The receiver was continuously spoofed by a transmitting antenna that always targeted the moving car. Even when the car was still moving on the street (green line), the attacked GNSS receiver displayed the spoofed trajectory (red line).


  • Record Condition: Open sky, dynamic (driving car)
  • Length: ≈ 3 Minutes
  • Sampling Frequency: 20 MHz
  • Bit Resolution: 2 Bits
  • Scenario: Time-synchronized position spoofing (generated by a LOKI device over the air*)


* IGASPIN had exclusive permission for this test to transmit the GNSS spoofing signal over the air.

 1.099,99 incl. VAT

Includes 20% VAT
Delivery Time: no delivery time (e.g. download)

Included in This Sample:

Additional Resources:

Related Products and Recommended Accessories:

Related Products

Do you have a question about IGASPIN products and services?

Get all the answers you need. Send us your message now:

Request a custom scenario

If your preferred scenario is not found, don't hesitate to contact us for assistance.

Your data

Information about your desired scenario

Additional information

Shopping Basket