Localization of Jamming and Spoofing using a Rotating Antenna

Radial2017 Real Time GNSS Signal Jamming/Spoofing Detection and Localization

There is a widespread consensus that Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) will play an increasingly crucial role in the future. The reliance on GNSS for safety-critical infrastructure and emerging technologies is expected to grow. However, GNSS is susceptible to vulnerabilities, particularly from jamming and spoofing. These threats have been extensively researched in recent years, with a primary focus on detection and mitigation. Notably, there has been limited attention given to the localization of interfering signal sources, especially GNSS spoofers.

Locating GNSS spoofers

Regulatory authorities are responsible for overseeing the proper utilization of the electromagnetic frequency spectrum. They maintain a complex infrastructure primarily geared towards ensuring the functionality of various communication services within a given state. Unfortunately, this infrastructure has limited capabilities for monitoring navigation services like GNSS and lacks the ability to pinpoint the sources of interference. This limitation stems from the distinct signal characteristics of communication signals compared to navigation signals, with communication signals typically operating at significantly higher power levels. As a result, regulatory authorities have faced challenges in safeguarding the GNSS frequency spectrum, as evidenced by several incidents in recent years.

Real-time monitoring station

The project aimed to address these issues by developing a real-time GNSS monitoring station. This station utilizes a GNSS software receiver in conjunction with a rotating dual-purpose antenna. Given the prevalent jamming and spoofing scenarios, there is a pressing need to enhance spoofer localization algorithms to effectively counter non-cooperative (low-cost) spoofers. Additionally, a new mechanical design was devised for the rotating antenna, incorporating a directional antenna element to pinpoint the sources of jamming signals.

Pinpointing jamming signals

To assess the effectiveness of the developed demonstrator system in detecting and localizing interfering sources, a dedicated measurement campaign was conducted. Given the inherent complexities, such as low signal power and signal reflections, substantial efforts were dedicated to characterizing the system’s performance in terms of angular accuracy and horizontal localization. These tests were conducted by IGASPIN GmbH on the Austrian military training area known as the “Seetaler Alpe.”

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